CRITICAL INCIDENTS AND CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT (CISM) – AN EMPLOYEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME (EAP) PERSPECTIVE

Lourie Terblanche, Andre Van Wyk

Abstract


Employees are increasingly becoming victims of critical incidents. From a systems theory point of view, it is necessary to acknowledge the impact of critical incidents not only on the personal life of the employee, but on the workplace itself.
Employees respond differently to critical incidents, which makes it even more complicated when this reaches the point of requiring therapeutic intervention. The most common response to critical incidents may be the risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression. This reality requires management – through the Employee Assistance Programme (EAP) – to be able to effectively deal with such critical incidents.

Full Text:

PDF

References


ALTBEKER, A. 2002. Comparing crime in the provinces: trends since 1994. Nedbank ISS Crime Index, 6:7-13.

AMSTADTER, A.B. & VERNON, L.L. 2008. Emotional reactions during and after trauma: a comparison of trauma types. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 16(4):391-405.

ATTRIDGE, M. & VANDEPOL, B. 2010. The business case for workplace critical incident response: a literature review and some employer examples. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 25(2)132-145.

BISSON, J.I. 1995. Psychological reactions of victims of violent crime. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 176(6):718-720.

BOARD ON POPULATION HEALTH (BPH). 2008. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: an assessment of the evidence. Washington DC: National Academies Press.

BRENDE, J.O. & GOLDSMITH, R. 1991. Post-traumatic stress disorder in families. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 21(2):115-125.

BRUCE, W.M. 1990. Problem employee management. New York: Quaram Books.

BRYANT, R.A. 2007. Early intervention for post-traumatic stress disorder. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 1(1):19-26.

CARLSON, E.B. 1997. Trauma assessment: a clinicians guide. New York: Guildford.

CLAUSSEN, L. 2009. After the incident: how to deliver the message to employees and family members about workplace victims. Safety and Health, (November):48-51.

COMPTON, B.R. & GALAWAY, B. 1984. Social work processes. Homewood III: Darsey Press.

DE VRIES, A., KASSAM-ADAMS, N., CNAAN, A., SHERMAN-SLATE, E., GALLAGHER, P. & WINSTON, F. 1999. Looking beyond the physical injury: post-traumatic stress disorder in children and parents after paediatric traffic injury. Pediatrics, 104(6):1293-1299.

EAPA (South African Chapter). 2010. Standards for employee assistance programs in South Africa. Compiled by: Standards Committee of EAPA-SA.

ENGELBRECHT, A.S. 1997. The impact of crime on the family. Dissertation presented at the Family therapy Michael White Conference. Johannesburg: Helderfontein.

FELDNER, M.T., MONSON, C.M. & FRIEDMAN, M.J. 2007. A critical analysis of approaches to PTSD prevention. Behavior Modification, 31(1):80-116.

FIGLEY, K.J. 1994. Helping traumatized families. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Publishers.

FRIEDMAN, M.J. 2003. Post-traumatic stress disorder. The latest assessment and treatment strategies. Kansas: Compact Clinicals.

HEINRICHS, M., WAGNER, D., SCHOCH, W., SORAVIA, L.M., HELLHAMMER, D.H. & EHLERT, U. 2005. Predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms from pretraumatic risk factors: a 2-year prospective follow-up study in fire fighters. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(12):2276-2286.

HOLTYN, K. 2006. Wellness program management advisor. Health Resources Publishing.

JANNOF-BULLMAN, R. 1997. Understanding reactions to traumatic events. The Harvard Mental Health Letter Forum, October.

KESSLER, R.C. & STANG, P.E. (eds). 2006. Health and work productivity: making the business case for quality health care. Chicago: University of Press.

KLEBER, R.J. & BROM, D. 1992. Coping with trauma: theory, prevention and treatment. Amsterdam: Swets & Zeitlinger.

LEGGETT, T. 2003. The facts behind the figures. Crime statistics 2002/2003. SA Crime Quarterly, (6):17.

LEWIS, G.W. 1996. Critical incident stress and trauma in the workplace: recognition, response, and recovery. Accelerated Development Inc. Publishers.

MacGREGOR, J. 1998. The victim’s experience of hijacking: a qualitative approach. Johannesburg: Rand Afrikaans University.

McLEOD, J. & McLEOD, J. 2001. How effective is workplace counselling? A review of the research literature. Counselling Psychotherapy Research, 1(3):184-191. MedicineNet.com. Retrieved from www.medterms.com. [Accessed: 07/11/2011].

MERCER, M. 2007. Survey of health, productivity and absence management programs. New York: March and McLennan Companies.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15270/50-1-14

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.





ISSN 2312-7198  (online) ; ISSN 0037-8054 (print)


Powered by OJS and hosted by Stellenbosch University Library and Information Service since 2014.


Disclaimer:

This journal is hosted by the SU LIS on request of the journal owner/editor. The SU LIS takes no responsibility for the content published within this journal, and disclaim all liability arising out of the use of or inability to use the information contained herein. We assume no responsibility, and shall not be liable for any breaches of agreement with other publishers/hosts.

SUNJournals Help