• Raisibe Kaeane South African Social Security Agency (SASSA), Sedibeng District, Vereeniging.
  • Eleanor Ross Centre for Social Development in Africa, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.



Poverty in South Africa
Following the first democratic elections in 1994, South Africa experienced a shift from an apartheid-based state to a democratic, egalitarian society, a shift which took place in the context of globalisation. Among the structural injustices inherited from the apartheid system, poverty is particularly prominent and compounds all others. The existence of a socially conscious government in South Africa has firmly placed the need to address poverty high on the nation’s agenda. Policy development and resources set aside by government are testimony to the fact that the government is committed to providing a better life for all by fighting poverty (Mubangizi, 2004).


Download data is not yet available.


ALLRED, T.E. 1998. Privatising grassroots development: lessons learned from artisanal fishermen in Northern Columbia. Grassroots Development, (2):35-57.

BOND, P. 2003. Debates in local economic development policy and practice. Urban Forum, 14(2-3):147-164.

DAVIDS, I., THERON, F. & MAPHUNYE, K.J. 2009. Participatory development in South Africa: a development management perspective (2nd ed). Pretoria, South Africa: Van Schaik Publishers.

DEPARTMENT OF WELFARE. 1997. White Paper for Social Welfare. Principles, guidelines, recommendations, proposed policies and programmes for developmental social welfare. Pretoria: Government Gazette.

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. 2006-2010. Five Year Strategy 2006-2010. Unpublished document.

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. 2006. Impact and effectiveness of poverty programmes in Gauteng. Unpublished paper.

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. 2007. Revised Operational Manual for Gauteng Province Development Centres. Unpublished document.

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT. 2011. Draft Reviewed Framework for Developmental Social Welfare Services January 2011.

DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS. 2009. The presidency, Republic of South Africa. [Online] Available: [Retrieved: 12/05/2011].

DIMITRIEVSKA, V. 2008. Qualitative analysis of poor households in the Republic of Macedonia. Draft Document for the Guidelines for Identification of Household and Individuals in Dire Poverty with a view to Design and Implement appropriate Interventions to Improve their Situations. Unpublished Paper.

DU TOIT, M. 2006. The Darkest Africa. [Online] Available: http://www.theother [Retrieved: 28/08/2009].

HOLSCHER, D. 2007. Social work in times of neoliberalism: a postmodern discourse. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

HOLSCHER, D. & SEWPAUL, V. 2006. Ethics as a site of resistance: The tension between social control and critical reflection. In: HALL, N. (ed) Social work: making a difference. Social work around the world. The year of IFSW’s 50th Jubilee. International Federation of Social Workers and Fafo. London: Sage Publications.

INTEGRATED SERVICE DELIVERY MODEL. 2006. Towards improved social services. Pretoria: Government Printers.

McLENNAN, B. 2007. SA to set official “poverty line”. Mail and Guardian. [Online] Available: http: //www.Mail&Guardianonline.htm. [Retrieved: 05/06/2007].

MIDGLEY, J. 1995. Social development: the development perspective in social welfare. London: Sage Publications.


MUBANGIZI, B.C. 2004. Poverty alleviation and service delivery: a case study for water programme in Mvenyane. Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal. (Doctoral Thesis)

NOYOO, N. 2003. Social welfare policy, social work practice and professional education in a transforming society. Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand. (Unpublished PhD Thesis)

PATEL, L. 2005. Social welfare and social development. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.

PAUL, S. 1987. Community participation in development projects: the World Bank experience. Washington: The World Bank.

PLAATJIES, D. & NICOLAOU-MANIAS, K. 2005. Budgeting for job creation in social welfare services – exploring EPWP opportunities. Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council.

PRETORIUS, T. & DE LA REY, C.M. 2004. A brief introduction to research approaches in psychology. In: SCHWARTZ, L., DE LA REY. C.M. & DUNCAN, N. (ed) Psychology: an introduction. Cape Town: University of Cape Town.

SACHS, J. 2005. The end of poverty: how we can make it in our lifetime. London: Penguin.

SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE FOR RACE RELATIONS. 2007/08. South African Survey. Johannesburg: Creda Communications.

SOUTH AFRICAN INSTITUTE OF RACE RELATIONS (SAIRR) 2011. South Africa Survey 2009/10. Johannesburg. SAIRR.

STATISTICS SOUTH AFRICA. 2011. Quarterly Labour Force Survey. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa.

STRYDOM, C. & TLHOJANE, M.E. 2008. Poverty in rural area: the role of the social worker. Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk, 44(1):4-51.

SWANEPOEL, H. 2007. Community capacity building: a guide for field workers and community leaders. Pretoria: International Thomson Publishing.

TERRE’BLANCHE, M., DURRHEIM, K. & KELLY, K. 2006. First steps in qualitative analysis. In: TERRE’BLANCHE, M., DURRHEIM, K. & PAINTER, D. (eds) Research in practice: applied methods for the social sciences. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press: 322-344.

VISSER, W. 2004. “Shifting RDP into GEAR”. The ANC Government’s dilemma in providing an equitable system of social security for the new South Africa. Paper presented at the 40th ITH Linzer Konferenz, September 17.

WELMAN, J.C., KRUGER, S.J. & MITCHELL, B.C. 2008. Research methodology. South Africa: Oxford University Press.

WILLIAMS, M., UNRAU, Y.A., GRINNELL, R.M. & EPSTEIN, I. 2011. The qualitative research approach. In: GRINNELL, R.M. & UNRAU, Y.A. (eds) Social work research and evaluation: foundations of evidence-based practice (9th ed). New York: Oxford University Press: 52-67.

WORLD BANK. 1992. World Development Report: the state in a changing world. Washington DC: Oxford University Press.

ZUNGU, Z.M. 2006. An investigation into factors contributing to the success or failure of income generation projects in Nongoma. KwaZulu-Natal: University of KwaZulu-Natal. (Master’s in Social Work research report)




How to Cite

Kaeane, R., & Ross, E. (2014). INCOME-GENERATING PROJECTS: ALLEVIATING OR PERPETUATING POVERTY?. Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk, 48(1).