• Wessel Visser Department of History, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa




South Africa has never been a welfare state in the sense that it has not provided all its people
with a set of social policies to guarantee the minimum standard of living. The apartheid state
was a welfare state for whites but not for blacks. However, the problems the country faces,
namely chronic mass unemployment and increasing poverty in the context of globalisation and
post-industrialisation, have certain similarity in structure with what the Northern welfare states
are experiencing, although in the South African case the problems were, historically speaking,
much more serious and more complicated because of its racial aspects (Makino, 2004:6).


Download data is not yet available.


ADELZADEH, A. 1996. From the RDP to GEAR. The gradual embracing of neo-liberalism in

economic policy. Occasional Paper No 3. Johannesburg: National Institute for Economic

Policy (NIEP).

ADLER, G. & WEBSTER, E. 2001. The labour movement, radical reform and the transition to

democracy in South Africa. Global Solidarity Dialogue. Available:

http://www.antenna.nl/~waterman/adler.html, version 11.29.2001.

AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS. 2009. Policy framework for the ANC’s 2009

manifesto, 11 January. Available: http://www.politicsweb.co.za/politicsweb/view/

politicsweb/en/page71654?oid=11404, version 6.4.2009.

ANON. 2004. Hop se breë beginsels weer deel van ANC se toekomsplanne ná verkiesing. Die

Burger, 13 Januarie.

ANON. 2008. Declaration of the Alliance Economic Summit” in The Wild Frontier at The

Times Blog Archive, 22 October. Available: http://blogs.thetimes.co.za/hartley/

/10/22/anc-alliance-summit-statement-on-poli, version 6.4.2009.

ANON. 2009. ANC springs no surprises. Sunday Independent, 11 January. Available:

http://www.blacksash.org.za/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1023&, version


BASKIN, J. 1991. Striking back. A history of COSATU. Johannesburg: Ravan Press.

BASKIN, J. 1994. Unions in transition. COSATU at the dawn of democracy. Johannesburg:


BOND, P. 2000. Elite transformation. From Apartheid to Neoliberalism in South Africa.

London & Sterling, Virginia: Pluto Press.

BOND, P. 2003. Debates in local economic development policy and practice. Urban Forum,


BOND, P. 2004. South Africa: The frustrating decade of freedom. Green Left Weekly, 7

April. Available: http://www.greenleft.org.au/back/2004/578p19.htm, version 15.4.2004.

BUHLUNGU, S. 1994. COSATU and the elections. South African Labour Bulletin, 18(2):7-

DAVENPORT, T.R.H. 1987. South Africa. A modern history. Johannesburg: MacMillan.

DOXEY, G.V. 1961. The industrial colour bar in South Africa. Cape Town, Pretoria & New

York: Oxford University Press.

FINNEMORE, M. 1998. Introduction to labour relations in South Africa. Durban:


GOMOMO, J. 1997. “COSATU President at the COSATU 6th National Congress, 16

September”. Available: http://www.cosatu.org.za/congress/sp-gom.htm, version 11.28.2001.

HARSCH, E. 2001. South Africa tackles social inequities. Africa Recovery, 14(4), January.

Available: http://www.un.org/ecosocdev/geninfo/afrec/subjindx/144soafr.htm, version


HEYMANS, C. 1995. A lifelong task. The RDP in perspective. Indicator SA, 13(1):57-64.

KARIS, T. & GERHART, G.M. 1977. Challenge and violence 1953-1964, vol. 3. In: KARIS,

T. & CARTER, G.M. (eds) From protest to challenge. A documentary history of African

politics in South Africa 1882-1964. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press.

KHUMALO, F. 2002. Die nuwe GEAR is glo ’n plan om COSATU te paai. Rapport, 3


KNIGHT, R. 2001. South Africa: economic policy and development. Available:

http://homestead.juno.com/rknight1/files/sisaecompolicy.htm, version 11.28.2001.

KOTZÉ, D. 2000. The political economy of development in South Africa. African Security

Review, 9(3). Available: http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/ASR/9No3/PolEconom.html, version 11.


KRUGER, J.J. 1992. State provision of social security: some theoretical, comparative and

historical perspectives with reference to South Africa. Stellenbosch: University of

Stellenbosch. (MComm Thesis)

LEE, M.C. 1998. Focus on South Africa: prospects for the 21st Century. Available:

http://www.uga.edu/afrstu/NEWS/newsletter3/newletter3.html, version 11.30.2001.

MAKINO, K. 2004. Social security policy reform in Post-Apartheid South Africa. A focus

on the basic income grant. Centre for Civil Society Research Report No. 11, Durban.

MARAIS, H. 2001. South Africa. Limits to change. The political economy of transition.

London & New York: Zed Books Ltd.

MBEKI, T. 2003. Address by President Thabo Mbeki to the growth and development summit,

June”. Available: http://www.nedlac.org.za/docs/pr/2003/pr0607c.html, version 22.6.2004.

MBEKI, T. 2004. Address at the launch of the expanded public works programme, 18 May.

Available: http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/mbeki/2004/tm0518.html, version 22.6.2004.

McKENDRICK, B.W. 1988. The development of social welfare and social work in South

Africa. In: McKENDRICK, B.W. (ed) Introduction to social work in South Africa.

Pinetown: Owen Burgess Publishers.

McKINLEY, D.T. 1997. The ANC and the liberation struggle. A critical political

biography. London & Chicago: Pluto Press.

METH, C. 2003. Mass poverty, slow economic growth and redistribution. Social Dynamics,


MEYER, M.J. 2000. Globalisation: an issue of contestation and struggle in South Africa. Mots

Pluriels, 13 April. Available: http://www.arts.uwa.edu.au/MotsPluriels/MP1300mm.html,

version 11.29.2001.

MIDGLEY, J. 2001. South Africa: the challenge of social development. International Journal

of Social Welfare, 10(4):267-275.

MOKONYANE, N. 2009. Shelter for all. ANC Today, 9(13) 3 April. Available:

http://www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/anctoday/2009/at13.thm, version 6.4.2009.

PATEL, L. 1992. Restructuring social welfare. Options for South Africa. Johannesburg:

Ravan Press.

POTGIETER, M.C. 1970. Maatskaplike sorg in Suid-Afrika. ‘n Ontleding van die aard,

omvang, funksieverdeling en finansiering van die dienste gelewer deur die Staat en

partikuliere welsynsorganisasies. Stellenbosch: Universiteit van Stellenbosch. (DPhilproefskrif)

POTTINGER, B. 2008. The Mbeki legacy. Cape Town: Zebra Press.

SOUTHALL, R. & WOOD, G. 1999. COSATU, the ANC and the election: whither the

alliance? Transformation, 38:68-81.


Taylor Commission Report. The Basic Income Grant: eradication of poverty, 9 & 10th June.

Available: http://www.pmg.org.za/docs/2003/appendices/030610sabc.htm, version 21.4.2004.

TERREBLANCHE, S.J. 1999. The ideological journey of South Africa: from the RDP to the

GEAR macro-economic plan. Religion in Public Life. Available:

http://www.uct.ac.za/depts/ricsa/confer/me99/procs/pro_terr.htm, version 11.29.2001.

TERREBLANCHE, S.J. 2003. A history of inequality in South Africa, 1652-2002.

Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.

VAN DER BERG, S. 1997. South African social security under apartheid and beyond.

Development Southern Africa, 14(4):481-503.

VAN DER BERG, S. 2002. Issues in South African social security. Stellenbosch Economic

Working Papers, 1, Department of Economics & Bureau for Economic Research, University of


VAN DER BERG, S. & BURGER, R. 2002. The stories behind the numbers: an

investigation of efforts to deliver services to the South African poor. Report prepared for

the World Bank as background study to the World Development Report 2004. University of


VAN DER WALT, L. 2000. Gear vs Social Welfare. South African Labour Bulletin,


WEBSTER, E. & ADLER, G. 1998. Towards a class compromise in South Africa’s

“Double Transition”: bargained liberalisation and the consolidation of democracy. Paper

presented to the Seminar on Labour and Popular Struggles in the Global Economy, Columbia

University, New York City, 17 November.

YUDELMAN, D. 1983. The emergence of modern South Africa: state, capital, and the

incorporation of organised Labor on the South African Gold Fields, 1902-1939. Westport

& London: Greenwood Press.

ZUMA, J. 2008. ANC President Jacob Zuma. Address to the South African Communist Party

Policy Conference, Randburg Towers, 27 September. Available: http://groups.google.

com/group/Communist-University/browse_thread/thread/44828e, version 6.4.2009.




How to Cite

Visser, W. (2014). “FROM RDP TO GEAR TO POST-POLOKWANE”. THE ANC AND THE PROVISION OF SOCIAL SECURITY FOR POST-APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA. Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk, 45(3). https://doi.org/10.15270/45-3-201