• Jackie Stewart Trauma Centre for Survivors of Violence and Torture, Cape Town, South Africa
  • Leslie Swartz Department of Psychology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch and Human Sciences Research Council, South Africa



A diversity of research has demonstrated that, although all people will present with a reaction after a traumatic incident, only a minority will develop posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD (Allan, La Grange, Niehaus, Scheurkogel & Stein, 1998). A complex interaction of multiple pre- and post-trauma factors determines the response. Numerous studies have attempted to assess variables that make an individual more susceptible to developing PTSD. A number of factors were investigated including genetic (Eisen, Goldberg, Heath, Lyons, Nowak & Rise, 1993), family history (Breslau, Davis, Andreski & Peterson, 1991), individual personality (Schurr, Friedman & Rosenberg, 1993), past history of trauma (Zaidi & Foy, 1994) and life events (McFarlane, 1989). A number of studies have identified posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as an important issue in various South African groups (Kaminer, Seedat, Lockhat & Stein 2000; Marais, De Villiers, Möller & Stein, 1999).


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How to Cite

Stewart, J., & Swartz, L. (2014). POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS SYMPTOMS IN EMERGENCY SERVICE AMBULANCE PERSONNEL. Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk, 41(4).