• Marcel Londt Department of Social Work, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa
Keywords: intimate partner violence, women, victim, risk, violence, IPV, sexual violence, assault, physical


This study used mixed methodology research; chose 53 male and 47 female respondents through purposive sampling, selected intervention research: design and development methodological framework to develop guidelines, used a Canadian Risk Assessment Tool to “assess risk”/“predict dangerousness”. The findings highlighted the need for “risk factor assessment”, showing specific risk factors predicted violence, with sexual violence playing a role. Perpetrators disregard their partners as victims when sexual violence was employed. Qualitative data from female respondents showed that perpetrators use physical assault and sexual violence in their attacks, and their behaviours were fuelled by attitudes that supported/condoned intimate partner violence (IPV). 

Author Biography

Marcel Londt, Department of Social Work, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa
Dr Marcel Londt, Department of Social Work, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa


BERGEN, R.K. 1995. Surviving wife rape. Violence Against Women, 1(2):117-138.


MERRICK, M.T. & CHEN, J. 2011. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Summary Report. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

BREIDING, M.J., BLACK, M.C. & RYAN, G.W. 2008. Chronic disease and health risk behaviors associated with intimate partner violence. Annals of Epidemiology, 18:538-544.

BREIDING, M.J., CHEN, J. & BLACK, M.C. 2014. Intimate partner violence in the United States – 2010. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

CAMPBELL, J., GARCÍA-MORENO, C. & SHARPS, P. 2004. Abuse during pregnancy in industrialized and developing countries. Violence Against Women, 10(7):770-789.

CARINGELLA-MacDONALD, S. 1997. Women victimized by private violence: a long way to justice. In: CARDARELLI, A. (ed), Violence between intimate partners: patterns, causes and effects. Boston, USA: Allyn & Bacon Publishers.


BRANDT, H.M. & SMITH P.H. 2002. Physical and mental health effects of intimate partner violence for men and women. Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23(4):260-268.

COKER, A.L., SMITH, P.H. & FADDEN, M.K. 2005. Intimate partner violence and disabilities among women attending family practice clinics. Journal of Women’s Health, 14(9):829-838.

CRESSWELL, J., KLASSEN, A.C., CLARK, V.L.P. & SMITH, K.C. 2011. Best practices for mixed methods research in the health sciences. USA: National Office of the Institute of Health: Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR).

DE VOS, A.S., STRYDOM, H., FOUCHÉ, C.B. & DELPORT, C.S.L. 2012. Research at grassroots: for the social sciences and human service professions (4th ed). Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

DENZIN, N. 2006. Sociological methods: a sourcebook (5th ed). New Jersey: Aldine Transaction.

GANLEY, A. 1991. Impact of domestic violence on the defendant and victim in the courtroom. In: Domestic violence: the crucial role of the judge in criminal court cases. (A national model for judicial education). San Francisco, CA, USA: The Family Violence Prevention Fund.

GANLEY, A. 1995. Review of intake interviews with batterers seeking treatment program, 1998-1994. (Unpublished data).

GANLEY, A. 2009. Domestic violence, parenting evaluations and parenting plans: practice guide for parenting evaluators in family court proceedings. Seattle: King County Coalition Against Domestic Violence.

GARCIA-MORENO, C., JANSEN, H.A., ELLSBERG, M., HEISE, L. & WATTS, C.H. 2006. Prevalence of intimate partner violence: findings from the

WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. Lancet, 368(9543):1260-1269.


WATTS, C.H. 2005. WHO multi-country study on women’s health & domestic violence against women. Initial results on prevalence, health outcomes and women’s responses. Geneva: World Health Organization.

GOODMAN, A.L., DUTTON, M. & BENNETT, L. 2000. Predicting repeat abuse among arrested batterers: use of the danger assessment scale in the criminal justice system. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15(1):63-74.

HANCOX, G. 2012. Marital rape in South Africa; enough is enough. Journal on African Women’s Experiences, 2(1):70-96.

HEISE, L. & GARCIA-MORENO, C. 2002. Violence by intimate partners. In: KRUG, E.G., DAHLBERG, L.L. & MERCY, J.A. (eds), World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization.

HOGUE, M.E., HOGUE, M. & KADER, S.B. 2009. Prevalence and experience among rural and pregnant women in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. South African Journal of Epidemiological Infections, 24(4):34-37.

IVANKOVA, N.V., CRESSWELL, J.W. & CLARK, V.L.P. 2014. Foundations and approaches to mixed methods research. In: MAREE, K. (ed), First steps in research, revised edition. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

JEWKES, R, SEN, P. & GARCIA-MORENO, C. 2002. Sexual violence. In:

KRUG, E.G. (eds), World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 149-181.

KIELY, M., AYMAN, A.E., EL-MOHANDES, M.D., GANTZ, A. & McFARLANE, M. 2010. An integrated intervention to reduce intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 115:273-283.

KROPP, P. & HART, D. 2004. The development of the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER): a tool for criminal justice professionals. Department of Justice Canada, Research and Statistics Division.

KROPP, P.R., HART, S.D., WEBSTER, C.D. & EAVES, D. 1995. Manual for the spousal assault risk assessment guide. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: The British Columbia Institute Against Family Violence.

KROPP, P.R., HART, S.D., WEBSTER, C.D. & EAVES, D. 2000. The Spousal Assault Risk Assessment guide (SARA): reliability and validity in adult male offenders. Law & Human Behaviour, 24(1):101-118.

LOGAN, T.K. & COLE, J. 2007. The impact of partner stalking on mental health and protective order outcomes over time. Violence and Victims, 22:546-562.

LONDT, M.P. 2014. Batterer risk assessment: the missing link in breaking the cycle of interpersonal violence. The Social Work Practitioner-Researcher, 26(1):93-116.

PIETERSEN, J. & MAREE, K. 2014. Standardisation of a questionnaire. In: MAREE, K. (ed), First steps in research (rev ed). Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

PUENTE, S. & COHEN, D. 2003. Jealousy and the meaning (or non-meaning) of violence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29:449-460.

RANDALL, T. 1990. Domestic violence intervention calls for more than treating injuries. Journal of the American Medical Association, 264(8):939-940.

REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA. 1998. Domestic Violence Act 116 of 1998. Pretoria, South Africa: Government Printers.

ROTHMAN, J.R. & THOMAS, E.J. (eds). 1994. Intervention research: design and development for human service. New York, USA: The Haworth Press Inc.

STRAUS, M.A., GELLES, R.J. & STEINMETZ, S.K. 1980. Behind closed doors. Garden City, NY, USA: Anchor/Doubleday Publishers.

TJADEN, P. & THOENNES, N. 2006. Extent, nature and consequences of rape victimization: findings from the National Violence against Women Survey. Washington DC, US Department of Justice. [Online] Available: www.ojp.usdoj. gov/nij/pubs-sum/210346.htm. [Accessed: 04/2012].

WASHINGTON, L. & TALLIS, V. 2012. Sexual and reproductive health and rights: a useful discourse for feminist analysis and activism? Journal on African Women’s Experiences, 2(1):6-11.

WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. 2013. Policy and Guidelines. WHO Report.