CHILD RIGHTS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: A CALL FOR A RIGHTS-BASED GLOBAL RESEARCH AGENDA
AbstractDespite many achievements regarding child rights over the last 20 years, including improvements in many indicators such as the significant reduction in infant and child mortality; the more positive way of thinking about and listening to children; and increased response to those who abuse children, the rights of children are still insufficiently protected. Millions of children across the world suffer from the effects of extreme forms of poverty and their associated evils, such as malnourishment, stunted growth, nutritional-deficiency diseases and illiteracy. Recent figures from the International Labour Organisation (2010) show that, globally one in every six children work, 126 million children work in hazardous conditions, and the highest proportion of child labourers is in sub-Saharan Africa, where 26% of children (49 million) are involved in work. These figures provide only a glimpse of the challenges and obstacles that a child faces around the world
ADMASSIE, A. 2002. Explaining the high incidence of child labour in Sub–Saharan Africa. African Development Review, 14(2):251-275.
ADMASSIE, A. 2003. Child labour and schooling in the context of a subsistence rural economy: can they be Compatible? International Journal of Educational Development, 23(2):167-185.
AFRICAN CHARTER ON THE RIGHTS AND WELFARE OF THE CHILD (ACRWC). 1990. Doc. Organisation of African Unity. 1990. CAB/LEG/24.9/49. Addis Ababa.
AFRICAN CHILD POLICY FORUM (ACPF). 2010. International and regional legal instruments on children. Child Law Resources, 1:1-580.
AFRICARE. 2004. The Food Security Program Capacity Index (FSPCI). Unpublished Internal Guidance. Washington DC.
AKARRO, R.R.J. & MTWEVE, N.A. 2011. Poverty and its association with child labour in Njombe District in Tanzania: the case of Igima Ward. Curr. Res. J. Soc. Sci., 3(3):199-206.
ASHIABI, G.S. 2007. Play in the preschool classroom: its socio-emotional significance and the teacher’s role in play. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35(2):199-207.
BARNES, H., NOBLE, M., WRIGHT, G. & DAWES, A. 2009. A geographical profile of child deprivation in South Africa. Child Indicators Research, 2(2):181-199.
BARRIENTOS, A. & DEJONG, J. 2006. Reducing child poverty with cash transfers: a sure thing? Development Policy Review, 24(5):537-552.
BESSON, S. 2005. The principle of non-discrimination in the convention on the rights of the child. International Journal of Children's Rights, 13(4):433-461.
BLACK, R.E., MORRIS, S.S. & BRYCE. J. 2003. Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? Lancet, 361(9376):2226-2234.
BØÅS, M. & HATLØY, A. 2008. Child labour in West Africa: different work – different vulnerabilities. International Migration, 46(3):3-25.
BOESEN, J. & MARTIN, T. 2007. Applying a rights-based approach, an inspirational guide for civil society. The Danish Institute for Human Rights, Copenhagen.
CAMFIELD, L. 2010. Outcomes of orphanhood in Ethiopia: a mixed methods study. Social Indicators Research, 104(1):87-102.
CANAGARAJAH, S. & COULOMBE, H. 1998. Child labor and schooling in Ghana. Policy Research Working paper no. 1844. The World Bank: Washington D.C. http://socialwork.journals.ac.za/
CHIWAULA L. 2010. Household poverty and child labor decisions in Malawi. In: RANDALL, K.Q., AKEE, E.V. & EDMONDS, K.T. (ed) Child labor and the transition between school and work (Research in Labor Economics, Volume 31), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 33-51.
CRIVELLO, G., CAMFIELD, L. & WOODHEAD, M. 2009. How can children tell us about their wellbeing? Exploring the potential of participatory research approaches within young lives. Journal of Social Indicators Research, 90(3):51-72.
DAWES, A., BRAY, R. & VAN DER MERWE, A. 2007. Monitoring child wellbeing: a South African rights-based approach. Cape Town: HSRC Press.
DIEDEN, S. & GUSTAFSSON, B. 2003. Child poverty in South Africa: an assessment based on microdata for 1995. International Journal of Social Welfare, 12(4):326-338.
DINBABO, M. 2011. Social welfare policies and child poverty in South Africa: a microsimulation model on the Child Support Grant. Bellville: University of the Western Cape. (PhD Thesis)
FEDERLE, K.H. 2000. Children's rights and the need for protection. Family Law Quarterly, 34(3):421-440.
GARIBALDI, A. 1992. Preparing teachers for culturally diverse classrooms. In: DILWORTH, M.E. (ed) Diversity in teacher education: new expectations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 23-39.
GORDON, D., NANDY, S., PANTAZIS, C., PEMBERTON, S. & TOWNSEND, P. 2003. Child poverty in the developing world. Bristol: Policy Press.
GRODEM, A.S. 2008. Household poverty and deprivation among children: how strong are the links? Childhood, 15(1):107-125.
HARPER, C. & MARCUS, R. 1999. Child poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa Poverty Status Report. SC UK, London.
HILSON, G. 2010. Child labour in African artisanal mining communities: experiences from Northern Ghana. Development and Change, 41(3):445-473.
HOPE, K. 2005. Child survival, poverty, and labor in Africa. Journal of Children & Poverty, 11(1):19-42.
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION (ILO). 2010. World of work report 2010: from one crisis to the next? International Labour Office. Geneva: Switzerland.
JONSSON, U. 2003. Human rights approach to development programming. Nairobi: UNICEF.
KJORHOLT, A.T. 2002. Small is powerful – discourses on ‘children and participation’ in Norway. Childhood – a Global Journal of Child Research, 9(1):63-82.
LEVINE, S., VAN DER BERG, S. & YU, D. 2011. The impact of cash transfer on household welfare in Namibia. Development South Africa, 28(1):39-59.
LUND, F., NOBLE, M., BARNES, H. & WRIGHT, G. 2008. Is there a rationale for conditional cash transfers for children in South Africa? SDS Working Paper No. 53. Durban: School of Development Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal.
LUND, F., NOBLE, M., BARNES, H. & WRIGHT, G. 2009. Is there a rationale for conditional cash transfers for children in South Africa? Transformation, 70:70-91.
McINTYRE, D.J., BYRD, D.M. & FOXX, S.M. 1996. Field and laboratory experiences. In: SIKULA, J. (ed) Handbook of research on teacher education (2nd ed). New York: Simon Schuster Macmillan, 71-193.
MEINTJES, H. & HALL, K. 2009. Demography of South Africa’s children. In: PENDLEBURY, S., LAKE, L. & SMITH, C. (eds). South African child gauge 2008/2009. Cape Town: Children’s Institute, University of Cape Town, 71-78.
NOBLE, M., WRIGHT, G. & CLUVER, L. 2006. Developing a child-focused and multidimensional model of Child Poverty for South Africa. Journal of Children and Poverty, 12(1):39-53.
NOBLE, M., WRIGHT, G., MAGASELA, W. & RATCLIFFE, A. 2007. Developing a democratic definition of poverty in South Africa. Journal of Poverty, 11(4):117-141.
NYAMU-MUSEMBI, C. & CORNWALL, A. 2004. What is the “rights-based approach” all about? Perspectives from international development agencies. Working Paper No. 234. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.
OCHAITA, E. & ESPINOSA, M.A. 1997. Children's participation in family and school life: a psychological and development approach. International Journal of Children's Rights, 5(3):279-297.
PIRON, L.H. 2004. Rights-based approaches to social protection. ODI paper for DFID. London: DFID.
SUND, L.G. 2006. The rights of the child as legally protected interests. International Journal of Children's Rights, 14(4):327-337.
TANG, K.L. 2003. Implementing the United Nations convention on the rights of the child – the Canadian experience. International Social Work, 46(3):277-290.
TEKOLA, B., GRIFFIN, C. & CAMFIELD, L. 2009. Using qualitative methods with poor children in urban Ethiopia: opportunities & challenges. Social Indicators Research, 90(1):73-88.
THOMAS, N. 2007. Towards a theory of children’s participation. International Journal of Children's Rights, 15(2):199-218.
TWINE, R., COLLINSON, M.A., POLZER, T.J. & KHAN, K. 2007. Evaluating access to a child-oriented poverty alleviation in South Africa. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 35(69):118-127.
UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD (UNCRC). 1989. UN General Assembly Document A/RES/44/25. New York. United Nations. http://socialwork.journals.ac.za/
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF). 2004. Report on the progress for Children, Vol. I. New York. UNICEF.
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF). 2005. Annual report. New York. UNICEF.
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF). 2007. Annual report. New York. UNICEF.
UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF). 2011. The right of children with disabilities to education: a rights-based approach to inclusive education. Geneva. Switzerland.
UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 2003. Progress Report on the Global Response to the HIV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva. Switzerland.
UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMME ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). 2004. Report on the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS.
WILKINSON, K. 2011. Modelling the impact of taxes and transfers on child poverty in South Africa. Social Science Computer Review, 29(1):127-144.
WOLL, L. 2000. Reporting to the UN committee on the rights of the child: a catalyst for domestic debate and policy change? International Journal of Children’s Rights, 8(1):71-81
This journal is an open access journal, and the authors and journal should be properly acknowledged when works are cited.
Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk hold copyright.
Auhtors may use the publishers version for teaching purposes, in books, and with conferences.
The following license applies:
Attribution CC BY-4.0
This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation.
Articles as a whole may not be re-published with another journal.