• Antoinette Lombard Department of Social Work, University of Pretoria




In Africa a new understanding and thinking of entrepreneurship needs to be contextualised as part of the challenge to alleviate poverty. This challenge was confirmed when most of the heads of state committed themselves to addressing poverty as the top priority for their countries’ agendas when they signed the Declaration at the World Summit on Social Development (1995) and adopted Agenda 21, the agenda for sustainable development in the 21st century, during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992). Whilst there is consensus amongst world leaders that they want to reduce global poverty by half by 2015, the policies and strategies to achieve this were still being negotiated during the follow up to the World Summit for Sustainable Development in South Africa in August/September, 2002.


Download data is not yet available.


ASACKER, T. [n.d.]. Are You an Entrepreneur in the Best Sense of the Word? [Available on internet: http://www.sandboxwisdom.com/article%20%-20are%20%you20%an%-20entrepreneur-.html], Date of access: (unknown).

CARTON, R.B.; HOFER, C.W. & MEEKS, M.D. 1998. The entrepreneur and entrepreneurship: Operational definitions of their role in society. [Available on internet: http://www.sbaer.uca.edu/Research/1998/ICSB/k004.htm], Date of access: (unknown).

CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY 1995. Micro-Enterprising Financing: Global Agent for Poverty Reduction. International Development Information Centre. [Available on internet: http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/ xpress/dex/dex9509.htm] Date of access: (9 December).

CLARKE, S. 1996. Social Work as Community Development. A management model for social change. Vermont: Ashgate Publishing Limited.

DIXON, Y. & PRETORIUS, J.G. 2002. Sustainable Development: A South African Perspective. [Available on internet]: http://local.techpta.ac.za/comun/sd.htm, Date of access: (unknown).

FAWKNER, E. 2002. The Entrepreneur’s Checklist. [Available on internet: http://www.ecommer-cebase.com/article/636], Date of access: (3 March).

FOUCHÉ, C.B. 2002. Research strategies. In: DE VOS (ed), A.S.; STRYDOM, H.; FOUCHÉ, C.B. & DELPORT, C.S.L. Research at grass roots. (2nd ed) Pretoria: Van Schaik.

FREEDLAND, M. & ZDENEK, R.O. 1998. Issues in CED in the US. In: TWELVETREES, A. (ed) Community Economic Development. London: Community Development Foundation.

GRESHAM, P. 1985. Liberty and the Entrepreneur. The Liberty Haven Foundation. [Available on internet]:

http://www.libertyhaven.com/theoreticalorphilosophicalissues/lib…/libertyentrepreneur.shtm, Date of access: (unknown). Reprinted on the internet with permission from The Freeman, October, 35(10).

HOMAN, M.S. 1999. Promoting Community Change. Making It Happen in the Real World. Sec. Ed. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

IDEA CAFÉ’S. CYBERSCHMOOZ. 2001. How to define “entrepreneur”? [Available on internet: http://www.ideacafe.com/BB2/startupstew/2799.html], Date of access: 29 October.

KITCHING, R.B. 2002. Personal interview, 20 August. Manager: Christian Social Council (CSC) Soshanguve.

MAY, J. (ed) 1998. Poverty and Inequality in South Africa. Report prepared for the Office of the Executive Deputy President and the Inter-Ministerial Committee for Poverty and Inequality. Summary Report. 13 May. Durban: Fishwicks.

MIDGLEY, J. 1995. Social development. The developmental perspective in social welfare. London: SAGE Publications.

MIDGLEY, J. 1996. Involving Social Work in Economic Development. International Social Work, 39:13-25.

NGWENYA, E.C. 2002. Entrepreneurship in Soshanguve: A reflection as Community Leader. South Africa: Soshanguve.

PIPPIN, A. 2001. 5 Secrets of the Authentic Entrepreneur. [Available on Internet]: http://www.businesstoolchest,com/articles/data/20010124151220.shtml, Access date: (24 January).

RAHEIM, S. 1996. Micro-enterprise as an approach for promoting economic development in social work: Lessons from the Self-Employment Investment Demonstration. International Social Work, 39:69-82.

R.S.A. MINISTRY FOR WELFARE AND POPULATION DEVELOPMENT. 1997. White Paper for Social Welfare, Notice 1108 of 1997. Government Gazette, 386 (18166). Pretoria, 8 August. [Available on internet]: http://www.polity.org.za/govdocs/white_papers/social971.html.

R.S.A. DEPARTMENT TRADE AND INDUSTRY. 1995. White Paper on National Strategy for the Development and Promotion of Small Business in South Africa. Notice 213 of 1995. Cape Town, 20 March 1995. [Available on the internet]: http://www.polity.org.za/govdocs-/white_papers/smallbiz.html

R.S.A. Budget Speech. (2002) [Available on internet]: http://m1.mny.co.za.srbgt200…-/C2256B5F002FB32142256B66002BF412?OpenDocument, Date of access: (20 February).

SHINGH, A. 2000. Global Economic Trends and Social Development. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development. Occasional Paper 9. Geneva, June 2000.

SHRAGGE, E. 1997. Community economic Development: Conflicts and Visions. In: SHRAGGE, E. (ed) 1996. Community Economic Development. In Search of Empowerment. Buffalo, New York: Black Rose Books.

SKWEYIYA, Z.S.T. 2002. Opening Speech by Minister of Social Development, Dr. Z.S.T. Skweyiya at the Niep Urban and Rural Development Conference. Conference held at the St George Hotel, Rietvlei Dam. (18 April 2002).

THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION. 2001. Craft and Small Businesses. [Available on internet: http://europa.eu.int/comm/enterprise/entrepreneurship/craft/craft-introduction/ definition.htm], Date of access: (31 August).

TORRES, N.L. 2002. Examine Your Co-Op(tions). [Available on internet]” http://www. centurysmallbiz.entrepreneur.com/Y…/0%2C4621%2C300836-----%2C00.htm], Date of access: (July).

UNITED NATIONS. 1999. Participatory Approaches to Poverty Alleviation in Rural Community Development. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Division for Social Policy and Development. United Nations Publication, ST/ESA/262. USA.

WELLNESS INTERNATIONAL NETWORK. 1998. Redefining Entrepreneur. [Available on internet]: http://www.ewin.ws/wtarch/1998/first/stories/redefining/htm, Date of access: (unknown).




How to Cite

Lombard, A. (2014). ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN AFRICA: SOCIAL WORK CHALLENGES FOR HUMAN, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT1. Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk, 39(3). https://doi.org/10.15270/39-3-359




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>