AN INTERGENERATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON RISK AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS IN MULTI-PROBLEM POOR FAMILES LIVING IN CAPE TOWN
AbstractAt the time of the research the first author was employed as a social worker at a welfare organisation in the Cape Peninsula with a case load of over 300 clients. About 30 of these cases were multi-problem families who had been receiving social work services over at least three generations. The concern was that these multi-problem poor families seemed to be immobilised and found it difficult to break out of the cycle of poverty and welfare dependency
ALGOOD, C.L., HONG, J.S., GOURDINE, R.M. & WILLIAMS, A.B. 2011. Maltreatment of children with developmental disabilities: an ecological systems analysis. Child and Youth Services Review, 33:1142-1148.
AMATO, P.R. 2006. Marital discord, divorce, and children’s wellbeing: results from a 20-year longitudinal study over two generations. In: CLARKE-STEWART, A. & DUNN, J. (eds) Families count: effects on child and adolescent development. New York: Cambridge University Press, 179-202.
BARRETT, C. 2004. Rural poverty dynamics: Development policy implications. Agricultural Economics, 32(1):43-58. In: THE WORLD BANK 2008. Poverty and the environment: understanding linkages at the household level. Washington.
BEZUIDENHOUT, F.J. 1998. A reader on selected social issues (2nd ed). Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
BRADSHAW, J., STIMSON, C., SKINNER, C. & WILLIAMS, J. 1999. Absent fathers? London: Routledge.
BRAUN, V. & CLARKE, V. 2006. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3:77-101.
BROODRYK, J. 2007. Understanding South Africa: the Ubuntu was of living. South Africa: Ubuntu School of Philosophy.
CEREZO, M.A. & FRIAS, D. 1994. Emotional and cognitive adjustment in abused children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18:923-932.
CICCHETTI, D. & MANLY, J.T. 2001. Operationalizing child maltreatment: Developmental processes and outcomes. Development and Psychopathology, 13(4).
CLARKE-STEWART, A. & DUNN, J. (eds) 2006. Families count: effects on child and adolescent development. New York: Cambridge University Press.
CROUCH, L. 2005. Disappearing school children or data misunderstandings? [Online] Available: http://www.education.gov.za/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=eBrQkXYM Ilo%3d&tabid=137&mid=433 [Accessed: 07/09/2011].
DOBSON, J. 2002. Bringing up boys. Cape Town: Paarl Print.
EAMON, M.K. 2001. The effects of poverty on children’s socio-emotional development: An ecological systems analysis. Social Work, 46:256-266. http://socialwork.journals.ac.za/
EMERY, R.E. 1999. Marriage, divorce and children’s adjustment (2nd ed). Beverly Hills CA: Sage Publications.
FISHER, G.L. & HARRISON, T.C. 1997. Substance abuse: information for school counsellors, social workers, therapists, and counsellors. Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon.
FLANZER, J.P. 2000. Alcohol abuse causes domestic violence. In: ROLEFF, T.L. Domestic violence: opposing viewpoints. California: Greenhaven Press, 54-62.
FOUCHÉ, C.B. & DELPORT, C.S.L. 2011. Introduction to the research process. In: DE VOS, A.S., STRYDOM, H., FOUCHÉ, C.B. & DELPORT, C.S.L. (eds) Research at grass roots: for the social sciences and human service professions (4th ed). Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, 61-76.
FOUCHÉ, C.B. & SCHURINK, W. 2011. Qualitative research designs. In: DE VOS, A.S.; STRYDOM, H.; FOUCHÉ, C.B. & DELPORT, C.S.L. (eds). Research at grass roots: for the social sciences and human service professions (4th ed). Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, 307-327.
FUJIRA, G.T. & YAMAKI, K. 2000. Trends in demography of childhood poverty and disability. Exceptional Child, 66:187-199.
GOLDENBERG, I. & GOLDENBERG, H. 2004. Family therapy: an overview (6th ed). USA: Thomson.
GOUWS, L. 2012. The experiences of alumni adolescents on the contribution of the Mondesa Youth Opportunities Programme. Potchefstroom: North-West University. (MA-thesis)
GRAY, J., SPURWAY, P. & McCLUTCHEY, M. 2001. Lay therapy with families at risk for parenting difficulties: the Kempe Community Caring Program. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25:641-655.
GRUBER, K.J. & TAYLOR, M.F. 2006. A family perspective for substance abuse: Implications from the literature. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 6(1/2):1-29.
GRYCH, J.H. 1998. Children’s appraisals of interparental conflict: situational and contextual influences. Journal of Family Psychology, 12:437-453.
HÄRKÖNEN, U. 2007. The Bronfenbrenner ecological systems theory of human development. In: Scientific Articles of V International Conference: PERSON.COLOR.NATURE.MUSIC. Daugavpils University, Saule: Latvia.
HARVEY, J.H. 2002. Perspectives on loss and trauma: assaults on the self. USA: Sage Publications.
HETHERINGTON, E.M. & STANLEY-HAGAN, M. 1999. The adjustment of children with divorced parents: a risk and resiliency perspective. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40:129-140.
HOBFOLL, S.E. 1998. Stress, culture and community: the psychology and philosophy of stress. New York: Plenum Press.
HOBFOLL, S.E., MANCINI, A.D., HALL, B.J., CANETTI, D. & BONANNO, G.A. 2011. The limits of resilience. Distress following chronic political violence among Palestinians. Social Science & Medicine, 72:1400-1408.
HOLLOWAY, I. & WHEELER, S. 1998. Qualitative research for nurses. Great Britain: MPG Books.
JAFFEE, S.R., CASPI, A., MOFFITT, T.E., POLO-TOMÁS, M. & TAYLOR, A. 2007. Individual, family and neighbourhood factors distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children: a cumulative stressors model. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(3):231-253.
JAMES, R.K. & GILLILAND, B.E. 2001. Crisis intervention strategies (4th ed). USA: Brooks & Cole.
JORDAN, B. 1978. Poor parents: social policy and the ‘cycle of deprivation’. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Publishers.
KAMINER, D. & EAGLE, G. 2010. Traumatic stress in South Africa. South Africa: Wits University Press.
KANNEMEYER, C. 2008. School dropout in the Western Cape: the role of prior school progress, ability, pregnancy and family background. Cape Town: UCT (MA thesis).
KEELING, J. & MASON, T. (eds) 2008. Domestic violence: a multi-professional approach for healthcare practitioners. England: Open University Press.
KEMP, A. 1998. Abuse in the family: an introduction. USA: Brooks & Cole.
KIERNAN, K.E. & MENSAH, F.K. 2009. Poverty, maternal depression, family status and children’s cognitive and behavioural development in early childhood: a longitudinal study. Journal of Social Policy, 38:569-588.
KIMANI, E.; KOMBO, K. & UNIVERSITY, K. 2010. Challenges facing nuclear families with absent fathers in Gatundu North District, Central Kenya. The African Symposium, 10(2):11-25.
LEEDY, P.D. & ORMROD, J.E. 2005. Practical research: planning and design. New York: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.
LITTLE, L.F. 1990. Gestalt therapy with females involved in intimate violence. In: STITH, S.M., WILLIAMS, M.B. & ROSEN, K. Violence hits home: comprehensive treatment approaches to domestic violence. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 47-65.
MALINDI, M. & THERON, L. 2011. Drawing on strengths: images of ecological contributions to male street youth resilience. In: THERON, L., MITCHELL, C., SMITH, A. & STUART, J. Picturing research: drawing as visual methodology. Netherlands: Sense Publishers, 105-117. http://socialwork.journals.ac.za/
MASTEN, A.S. & SHAFFER, A. 2006. How families matter in child development: reflections from research on risk and resilience. In: CLARKE-STEWART, A. & DUNN, J. (eds) Families count: effects on child and adolescent development. New York: Cambridge University Press, 5-25.
MATTINGLY, M.J. & DUGAN, L. 2008. How female victims’ responses affect the risk of future assaults by their male intimate partners. In: KEELING, J. & MASON, T. (eds) Domestic violence: a multi-professional approach for healthcare practitioners. England: Open University Press, 197-209.
McLEOD, C. 2011. Adolescence, pregnancy and abortion: constructing a threat of degeneration. East Sussex: Routledge.
McLEOD, J. & NELSON, G. 2000. Programs for the promotion of family wellness and the prevention of child maltreatment: a meta-analytic review. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(9):1149-2000.
MINUCHIN, P., COLAPINTO, J. & MINUCHIN, S. 2007. Working with families of the poor (2nd ed). New York: Guilford Press.
MITCHELL, C.; THERON, L.; STUART, J.; SMITH, A. & CAMPBELL, Z. (eds) 2011. Drawings as research method. In: THERON, L., MITCHELL, C., SMITH, A. & STUART, J. Picturing research: drawing as visual methodology. Netherlands: Sense Publishers, 19-32.
MOLLBORN, S. 2006. Understanding teenage pregnancy norms and their influence on teenage mothers’ and fathers’ life outcomes. Dissertation, Standford University. In: SWARTZ, S. & BHANA, A. 2009. Teenage Tata: voices of young fathers in South Africa. South Africa: HSRC Press.
MORKEL, E. 2011. A participatory approach to healing and transformation in South Africa. Family Process, 50(4):486-502.
MORRELL, R. & RICHTER, L. 2006. BABBA: men and fatherhood in South Africa. In: PATRICK, C.L. 2006. Boys’ experience of an absent father – A Gestalt therapeutic description. Pretoria: UNISA. (MA dissertation)
NATIONAL CENTRE ON FATHERS, FAMILIES, AND CHILD WELL BEING IN CAMEROON: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. 2000. [Online] Available: http://www.ncoff.gse.ipenn.edu.
NATIONAL POPULATION UNIT. 2000. The state of South Africa’s population report. Pretoria: Department of Social Development.
NIEUWENHUIS, J. 2007. Qualitative research designs and data gathering techniques. In: MAREE, K. (ed). First steps in research. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, 69-97.
OOSTHUIZEN, M.J. & NIEUWOUDT, L. 2002. A Poverty Profile of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Stellenbosch University: Stellenbosch Economic Working Papers, 3/2002. http://socialwork.journals.ac.za/
Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk 2013:49(3)
POSSICK, C. 2005. Narratives of West Bank women settlers in “multi-problem families”: a case of conflicting master-narratives. Narrative Inquiry, 15(2):405-420.
PRYOR, J. & RODGERS, B. 2001. Children in changing families: life after parental separation. USA: Blackwell Publishing.
RANDO, T.A. 1993. Treatment of complicated mourning. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
RODRIGO, M.J., MÁIQUEZ, M.L., CORREA, A.D., MARTIN, J.C. & RODRIGUEZ, G. 2006. Outcome evaluation of a community centre-based program for mothers at high psychosocial risk. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30(9):1149-1064.
ROLEFF, T.L. 2000. Domestic violence: opposing viewpoints. California: Greenhaven Press.
ROSSMAN, B.B.R., HUGHES, H.M. & ROSENBERG, M.S. 2000. Children and interparental violence: the impact of exposure. USA: Taylor 7 Francis.
SERUMAGA-ZAKE, P., KOTZE, D. & MADSEN, R. 2005. A descriptive study of the dynamics of relative poverty in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Development Southern Africa, 22(1):143-160.
SHARLIN, S.A. & SHAMIA, M. 2000. Therapeutic intervention with poor, unorganised families: from distress to hope. New York: Haworth Press.
SOUSA, L. & EUSEBIO, C. 2005. When multi-problem poor individuals’ values meet practitioners’ values! Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 15:353-367.
SOUSA, L. 2005. Building on personal networks when intervening with multi-problem poor families. Journal of Social Work Practice, 19(2):163-179.
SOUSA, L., RIBIERO, C. & RODRIQUES, S. 2007. Are practitioners incorporating a strengths-focused approach when working with multi-problem poor families? Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 17:53-66.
STATSSA 2001. Census 2001: stages in the life cycle of South Africans. [Online] Available: http://www.statssa.gov.za/census01/html/C2001Stages.pdf [Accessed 03/09/ 2011].
STATSSA 2009. Social profile of South Africa 2002-2009. [Online] Available: http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/Report-03-19-00/Report-03-19-002009.pdf [Accessed: 03/09/2011].
STRAUSSNER, S.L.A. & FEWELL, C.H. 2010. Children of substance abusing parents: dynamics and treatment. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
STRYDOM, H. 2011. Sampling in the quantitative paradigm. In: DE VOS, A.S., STRYDOM, H., FOUCHÉ, C.B. & DELPORT, C.S.L. (eds) Research at grass roots: for the social sciences and human service professions (4th ed). Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, 222-235.
SWARTZ, S. & BHANA, A. 2009. Teenage Tata: voices of young fathers in South Africa. South Africa: HSRC Press.
TUTTY, I.M., ROTHERY, M.A. & GRINNELL, R.M. 1996. Qualitative research for social workers: phases, steps and tasks. Boston, Mass: Allyn & Bacon.
VAN EEDEN, J. 2011. Oh father where art thou? The Southern Independent Newspaper published on 21-06-2011. [Online] Available: http://www.iol.co.za/ sundayindependent/ life/oh-father-where-art-thou-1.1085989 [Accessed: 04/09/2011].
WALPER, S. & BECKH, K. 2006. Adolescents’ development in high conflict and separated families: evidence from a German longitudinal study. In: CLARKE-STEWART, A. & DUNN, J. (eds) Families count: effects on child and adolescent development. New York: Cambridge University Press, 238-270.
WELMAN, C., KRUGER, F. & MITCHELL, B. 2005. Research methodology (3rd ed). South Africa: Oxford University Press.
WHITTAKER, A. 2012. Research skills in social work. Glasgow: Sage Learning Matters.
WIDOM, C.S. & MAXFIELD, M.G. 2001. An update on the “cycle of violence”. Washington: National Institute of Justice.
WIEHE, V.R. 1998. Understanding family violence: treating and preventing partner, child, sibling, and elder abuse. California: Sage Publications.
WORLD BANK. 2008. Poverty and the environment: understanding linkages at the household level. Washington.
YONTEF, G. 1993. Awareness, dialogue and process: essays on Gestalt therapy. New York: Gestalt Journal Press.
ZUCKERMAN, B. 1994. Effects on parents and children. In: BESHAROW, D.J. (ed). When drug addicts have children. USA: CWLA, 49-63
This journal is an open access journal, and the authors and journal should be properly acknowledged when works are cited.
Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk hold copyright.
Auhtors may use the publishers version for teaching purposes, in books, and with conferences.
The following license applies:
Attribution CC BY-4.0
This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation.
Articles as a whole may not be re-published with another journal.