BIBLIOTHERAPEUTIC TECHNIQUES FOR USE BY SOCIAL WORKERS AND CAREGIVERS
AbstractAll children need to grow up with a sense of belonging and security in order to maintain healthy relationships later in life (Erikson, 1969:239; McWhirten, 2007:189; Toerien, 2001:31). Belonging is a basic human need that has to be met before certain other needs, such as self-actualisation and self-esteem, can be fulfilled (Erikson, 1969:238; Maslow, 1970:43; Max-Neef, 1991:33). A lack of a sense of belonging leads to feelings of rejection, loneliness and an inability to engage in future relationships (Ding & Littleton, 2005:i). Children who do not experience this sense of belonging can easily become involved in gangster activities, promiscuity or substance dependence in order to secure a false sense of belonging (Brendtro, Brokenleg & Van Bockern, 2002:9). Ideally, this need for belonging should be fulfilled within the primary family situation. However, the reality is that many children in South Africa do not live in what is generally regarded as the primary family, namely a family with two parents (Holborn & Eddy, 2011:1), but come from fractured families. Children from fractured families in disadvantaged communities have more complex needs to be met in order to feel secure (Ding & Littleton, 2005:iii; Holborn & Eddy, 2011:7; Minuchin, Colapinto & Minuchin, 2007:10; Toerien, 2001:31; Yuen, 2005:7).
AFRICAN CHARTER ON THE RIGHTS AND WELFARE OF THE CHILD. 1990. Article 12. [Online] Available: www.unhcr.org.refworld/docid/3ae6b38c.html [Accessed: 30/07/2012].
ALDERFER, C.P. 1989. Theories reflecting my personal experience and life development. The Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 25(4):351-365.
BARBER, P. 2006. Becoming a practitioner researcher. a Gestalt approach to holistic inquiry. London: Middlesex University Press.
BARKER, B.L. 2003. The social work dictionary (5th ed). Washington, DC: NASW Press. http://socialwork.journals.ac.za/
BECK, M. & MALLEY, J. 2003. A pedagogy of belonging. The International Child and Youth Care Network, 50:(March). [Online] Available: http://cyc-net.org/cyc-online. [Accessed: 18/02/2010].
BERLIN, L.J. 2005. Interventions to enhance early attachments: the state of the field today. In: BERLIN, L.J., ZIV, Y., AMAYA-JACKSON, L. & GREENBERG, M.T. (eds). Enhancing early attachments: theory, research, intervention and policy. New York, NY: Guilford, 3-33.
BOOTH, P.B. & JERNBERG, A.M. 2010. Theraplay: helping parents and children build better relationships through attachment-based play (3rd ed). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
BOWLBY, J. 1982. Attachment and loss, Vol. 1. New York, NY: Basic Books.
BRENDTRO, L.K., BROKENLEG, M. & VAN BOCKERN, S. 2002. Reclaiming youth at risk. Our hope for the future (rev ed). Indianapolis, In: National Educational Service.
BURNS, G.W. 2005. 101 Healing stories for kids and teens. Using metaphors in therapy. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley.
COSTELLO, P.J.M. 2000. Thinking skills and early childhood education. London: David Fulton.
DE VOS, A.S. & STRYDOM, H. 2011. Intervention research. In: DE VOS, A.S., STRYDOM, H., FOUCHé, C.B. & DELPORT, C.S.L. Research at grass roots for the social sciences and human service professions (4th ed). Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers, 473-490.
DING, S. & LITTLETON, K. 2005. Children’s personal and social development. Oxford: Blackwell.
ELLIOT, D.S., MENARD, S., RANKIN, B., ELLIOT, A., WILSON, W.J. & HUIZINGA, D. 2006. Good kids from bad neighbourhoods. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
ERIKSON, E. 1969. Childhood and society. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
FITZGERALD, J.A. 2007. Bibliotherapy. Encyclopedia of mental disorders. [Online] Available: http://www.minddisorders.com [Accessed: 28/12/2008].
FRASER-MACKENZIE, S. 2011. The African collection. Nine stories about physical and learning difficulties to promote acceptance and empower all children and caregivers. Knysna: Knysna Press.
GIRLS AND BOYS TOWN. 2011. Bookmark: six things a child needs to hear. [Online] Available: www.girlsandboystown.org.za [Accessed: 30/06/2012].
HAMILTON, A. 2005. The circle of courage. [Online] Available: http://www. parenting.org.za [Accessed: 23/06/ 2009]. http://socialwork.journals.ac.za/
HENDRICKS, C.G. & HENDRICKS, J.E. 1998. When children are victims: making the case for bibliotherapy. American Reading Forum Yearbook Online. [Online] Available: http://americanreadingforum.org/yearbook/yearbooks/98 [Accessed: 27/05/2012].
HEPWORTH, D.H. & LARSEN, J. 1993. Direct social work practice. Theory and skills (4th ed). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
HOLBORN, L. & EDDY, G. 2011. First steps to healing the South African family. Johannesburg: South African Institute of Race Relations.
JOYCE, P. & SILLS, C. 2010. Skills in Gestalt counselling and psychotherapy. London: Sage Publications.
KAREN, R. 1998. Becoming attached: first relationships and how they shape our capacity to love. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
KIRCHNER, M. 2004. Gestalt therapy theory: an overview. Gestalt! (4(3). Gestalt Global Corporation..
KRIEL, E., RADEMEYER, M. & RÖHRS, E. 2010. Voices of hope. Healing stories for Africa’s children. Cape Town: Jelly Beanz.
LUCAS, J.R. 2000. 1001 Ways to connect with your kids. Carol Stream, IL: Tyndale House.
MALCHIODI, C.A. & GINNS-GRUENBERG, D. 2008. Trauma, loss and bibliotherapy. The healing power of stories. In: MALCHIODI, C.A. (ed). Creative interventions with traumatized children. New York, NY: Guilford, 167-185.
MASLOW, A.H. 1970. Motivation and personality. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
MAX-NEEF, M.A. 1991. Human scale development. Conception, application and further reflections. New York, NY: Apex.
McWHIRTEN, J.J. 2007. At risk youth. Victoria: Thomson Australia.
MEYER, W.F., MOORE, C. & VILJOEN, H.G. 2008. Personology: from individual to ecosystem (4th ed). Johannesburg: Heinemann.
MILLER, J.M., LENDER, D., RUBIN, P.B. & LINDAMAN, S. 2010. Theraplay for children who are adopted or in foster care. In: BOOTH, P.B. & JERNBER, A.M. Theraplay: helping parents and children build better relationships through attachment-based play. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
MINUCHIN, P., COLAPINTO, J. & MINUCHIN, S. 2007. Working with families of the poor (2nd ed). New York, NY: Guilford.
MORIN, V.K. 1999. Fun to grow on: engaging play activities for kids with teachers, parents and grandparents. Chicago, IL: Magnolia Street Publishers.
OAKLANDER, V. 2003. Gestalt Play Therapy. In: SCHAEFER, C.E. (ed) Foundations of play therapy. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 143-155.
OELOFSEN, I. 2012. Facilitating sense of belonging of children in fractured families from disadvantaged communities, utilising bibliotherapeutic techniques. Potchefstroom: North-West University. (PhD thesis)
PARDECK, J.T. 1998. Using books in clinical social work practice. A guide to bibliotherapy. New York: Haworth.
PARDECK, J.T. 2005. Using bibliotherapy in family health social work practice with children of divorce. In: YUEN, F.K.O. Social work practice with children and families: a family health approach. New York, NY: Haworth, 45-53.
PERLS, F. 1973. Gestalt approach and eye witness to therapy. Los Altos, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
RECOB, A. 2008. Bibliotherapy: when children need books. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse.
ROTHMAN, J. & THOMAS, E.J. 1994. Intervention research. Design and development for human service. New York, NY: Haworth.
RUBIN, R.J. 1978. Bibliotherapy: a guide to theory and practice. London: Oryx .
SANTROCK, J.W. 2006. Life-span development (10th ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
SHARF, R.S. 2004. Theories of psychotherapy and counseling. Belmont, CA: Thomson.
SMITH, M.K., COWIE, H. & BLADES, M. 2003. Understanding children’s development (4th ed). Oxford: Blackwell.
SORENSEN, J. 2008. Overcoming loss: activities and stories to help transform children’s grief and loss. London: Jessica Kingsley.
SUNDERLAND, M. 2000. Using story telling as a therapeutic tool with children. Milton Keynes, UK: Speechmark.
TALBOT, J.P. & THORNTON, L. 2009. A chance to play: a manual promoting play for children in South Africa. Braamfontein: Fishwicks.
TOERIEN, M. 2001. Die benutting van Gestaltspelterapie op die aanpassing van die middelkinderjare-kind in ‘n kinderhuis. Pretoria: Universiteit van Pretoria. (MA verhandeling).
UNITED NATIONS. 1989. Conventions on the right of the child. Children’s right to play, recreation, leisure, art and cultural activities. Article 31. [Online] Available: http://www.unicef.org/crc [Accessed: 07/07/2007]. http://socialwork.journals.ac.za/
YONTEF, G.M. 2000. Why relational Gestalt therapy? Gestaltpsychotherapy Column & Forum. [Online] Available: http://www.gestaltpsychotherapie. de/column_01.01.htm [Accessed: 03/01/2007].
YUEN, F.K.O. 2005. Social work practice with children and families. A family health approach. New York, NY: Haworth
How to Cite
This journal is an open access journal, and the authors and journal should be properly acknowledged when works are cited.
Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk hold copyright.
Auhtors may use the publishers version for teaching purposes, in books, and with conferences.
The following license applies:
Attribution CC BY-4.0
This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation.
Articles as a whole may not be re-published with another journal.