• Nomonde Phetlho-Thekisho Social Work, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus
  • Elizabeth Hermina Ryke School of Psychosocial Behavioural Sciences (Social Work), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
  • Herman Strydom School of Psychosocial Behavioural Sciences (Social Work), North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa




South Africa has one of the highest per capita alcohol consumption levels in the world, with social norms dictating that when people drink, then consumption is heavy. On the other hand, South Africa also faces a globally unprecedented problem of violence directed particularly against women – a situation which undermines the national development of the country, with possibilities even of hindering the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (Jewkes, Abrahams, Mathews, Seedat, Van Niekerk, Suffla & Ratele, 2009:1-2). There is substantial evidence from various researchers attesting to the relation between alcohol outlets and violence. However, the specific risk factors involved based on the geography of the outlets together with the dynamic nature and distribution of violence remain obscure. The objective of this study is to address this obscurity by investigating the risk factors in heavy drinking and interpersonal violence at and around different alcohol outlets in demarcated areas of the North West province of South Africa.


Download data is not yet available.


AFRICA, D. 2005. Address by North West MEC for Finance and Economic Development, during Local Enterprise Task System (LETS): Small Business Seminar, South African Government Information. [Online] Available: http://www.info.gov.za/ speeches/2005 05063008151003.htm. [Accessed: 11/01/2008].

BASIC CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT ACT. 2002. Republic of South Africa. Act No. 11 of 2002. Pretoria: Government Printer.

CHILD CARE ACT. 1983. Republic of South Africa. Act No. 74 of 1983 as amended. Pretoria: Government Printer.

DAY, P., BREETZKE, G., KINGHAM, S. & CAMPBELL, M. 2012. Close proximity to alcohol outlets is associated with increased serious violent crime in New Zealand. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 36(1):48-54.

FELSON, R.B. & BURCHFIELD, K.B. 2004. Alcohol and the risk of physical and sexual assault victimization. Criminology, 42(4):837-859.

FLICK, U. 2006. An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage Publications.

GAUTENG PROVINCIAL DRAFT LIQUOR POLICY. 2011. Responsible distribution promotion sale and consumption of liquor. Department of Economic Development: Unpublished.

GRAHAM, K., BERNADS, S., OSGOOD, D.W., HOMEL, R. & PURCELL, J. 2005. Guardians and handlers: the role of bar staff in preventing and managing aggression. Society for the Study of Addiction, (100):755-766. http://socialwork.journals.ac.za/

GRUENEWALD, P., FREISTHLER, B., REMER, L., LA SCALA, E.A. & TRENO, A. 2006. Ecological models of alcohol outlets and violent assaults: crime potentials and geospatial analysis. Addiction, (101):666-677.

JERNIGAN, D.H. & OBOT, I.S. 2006. Thirsting for the African Market. African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies, (5):57-70.

JEWKES, R., ABRAHAMS, N., MATHEWS, S., SEEDAT, M., VAN NIEKERK, A., SUFFLA, S. & RATELE, K. 2009. Preventing rape and violence in South Africa: call for leadership in a new age for action. MRC Policy Brief. Pretoria: Medical Research Council.

LEATT, A., MEINTJIES, H. & BERRY, L. 2005. Children’s access to social assistance. In: JACOBS, M., SHUNG-KING, M. & SMITH, C. (ed) South African child gauge. University of Pretoria: Children’s Institute.

LIQUOR ACT. 2003. Republic of South Africa. Act No. 59 of 2003. Pretoria: South African Government Printer.

MCM RESEARCH. 2004. Report of research and consultation conducted by MCM Research Ltd for Wine Intelligence. St Clements: Oxford.

MDHLADHLA, Z. 2012. The effects of the location of outlets, density and trading hours on communities. An address at the DTI Liquor Regulation Convention on: towards a balanced and effective liquor regulation framework. Held at the Gallagher Estate, Johannesburg: Unpublished.

MOROJELE, N.K., KACHIENG’A, M.A., MOKOKO, E., NKOKO, M.A., PARRY, C.D.H., NKOWANE, A.M., MOSHIA, K.M. & SAXENA, S. 2006. Alcohol use and sexual behaviour among risky drinkers and bar and shebeen patrons in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Social Science & Medicine, 62(1):217-227.

NIEUWENHUIS, J. 2007. Qualitative research designs and data gathering techniques. In: MAREE, K. (ed). First steps in research. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

OBOT, I.S. 2006. Alcohol use and related problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies, 5(1):17-26.

PARKS, K.A. & SCHEIDT, D.M. 2004. Male bar drinkers’ perspective on female bar drinkers. Sex Roles, 42(11-12):927-941.

PARRY, C.D.H. & BENNETT, A. 1998. Alcohol policy and public health in South Africa. United Kingdom, Oxford University Press.

PEACOCK, R. & BOOYENS, K. 2007. Victimisation vulnerability of children. In: DAVIS, L. & SNYMAN, R. (eds). Victimology in South Africa. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.

POLIT, D.F. & BECK, C.T. 2008. Foundation of nursing research and evidence based practice. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.

QUIGLEY, B.M. & LEORNARD, K.E. 2004/2005. Alcohol use and violence among young adults. Alcohol Research and Health, 28(4):191-194. http://socialwork.journals.ac.za/

SABC NEWS. 2006. Authorities to clamp down on illegal liquor trade. [Online] Available: http://www.Sabcnews.com/south-africa/crime1justice/0,2172,128230,00. html. [Accessed: 28/5/2007].

THABETHE, E. 2011. Alcohol abuse costs R9bn a year. News 24. Unpublished.

WHO. 2004. Global Status Report on Alcohol. Geneva: World Health Organization.

WHO. 2005. Alcohol and Interpersonal Violence Policy Briefing. Geneva: World Health Organization.

WHO. 2006. Alcohol in developing Societies Summary. Geneva: World Health Organization.

WOJCICKI, J.M. 2000. An acceptance of violence: rape, shebeens and HIV. International Conference on AIDS – Abstract No. LBPeD 71222, July 9-14. [Online] Available: http://ww.gateway.hlm.nih.gov/meeingAbstracts/102242636html. [Accessed: 11/01/2008].

WOJCICKI, J.M. 2002. “She drank his money”: survival sex and the problem of violence in taverns in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Medical Anthropology




How to Cite

Phetlho-Thekisho, N., Ryke, E. H., & Strydom, H. (2014). HEAVY DRINKING AND INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE AT AND AROUND DIFFERENT ALCOHOL OUTLETS IN THE NORTH WEST PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA. Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk, 49(1). https://doi.org/10.15270/49-1-76




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>